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In Csound [Bou00] , the database is called a score (this usage was widespread among software synthesis packages at the time Csound was under development). Scores in Csound consist mostly of `notes', which are commands for a synthesizer. The `score' is essentially a timed sequence. A possible score might be as shown:

i1 0 1 440
i1 1 1 660
i1 2 1 1100

A Csound performance works as shown in Figure 1. Part (a) shows the ``classical" performance configuration, in which parameters in the notes update synthesis control values, each note acting at an effective time also calculated from the note's parameters.

Figure 1: A Csound performance: (a) score and orchestra; (b) using real-time control via MIDI.

Part (b) of the figure shows how to use real-time inputs (here from MIDI messages) in a Csound performance. The real-time inputs are simply merged with the (pre-scheduled) notes. In effect, there is no facility for intercommunication between the two control streams; they simply affect different variables in the orchestra, and the orchestra's audio output is controlled by the union of the two sets of variables.

Miller Puckette 2004-11-10