Directory pure-data/mac contains support files for building a Pure Data macOS application bundle and supplementary build scripts for compiling Pd on Macintosh systems, as it is built for the ‘vanilla’ releases on msp.ucsd.edu.
In a nutshell, a monolithic macOS “application” is simply a directory structure treated as a single object by the OS. Inside this bundle are the compiled binaries, resource files, and contextual information. You can look inside any application by either navigating inside it from the commandline or by right-clicking on it in Finder and choosing “Show Package Contents.”
The basic layout is:
Pd-0.47-1.app/Contents Info.plist <- contextual info: version string, get info string, etc /Frameworks <- embedded Tcl/Tk frameworks (optional) /MacOS/Pd <- renamed Wish bundle launcher /Resources /bin <- pd binaries /doc <- built in docs & help files /extra <- core externals /font <- included fonts /po <- text translation files /src <- Pd source header files /tcl <- Pd GUI scripts
The Pure Data GUI utilizes the Tk windowing shell aka “Wish” at runtime. Creating a Pure Data .app involves using a precompiled Wish.app as a wrapper by copying the Pd binaries and resources inside of it.
These scripts complement the autotools build system described in INSTALL.txt and are meant to be run after Pd is configured and built. The following usage, for example, downloads and builds a 32 bit Tk 8.6.6 Wish.app which is used to create a macOS Pd-0.47-1.app:
mac/tcltk-wish.sh --arch i386 8.6.6 mac/osx-app.sh --wish Wish-8.6.6.app 0.47-1
Both osx-app.sh & tcltck-wish.sh have extensive help output using the –help commandline option:
mac/osx-app.sh --help mac/tcltk-wish.sh --help
The osx-app.sh script automates building the Pd .app bundle and is used in the “make app” makefile target. This default action can be invoked manually after Pd is built:
This builds a “Pd-0.47-1.app” using the included Wish. If you omit the version argument, a “Pd.app” is built. The version argument is only used as a suffix to the file name and contextual version info is pulled from configure script output.
A pre-built universal (32/64 bit) Tk 8.6.10+ Wish with patches applied is included with the Pd source distribution and works across the majority of macOS versions up to 10.15. This is the default Wish.app when using osx-app.sh. If you want to use a different Wish.app (a newer version, a custom build, a system version), you can specify the donor via commandline options, for example:
# build Pd-0.47-1.app using Tk 8.6 installed to the system mac/osx-app.sh --system-tk 8.6 0.47-1
If you want Pd to use a newer version of Tcl/Tk, but do not want to install to it to your system, you can build Tcl/Tk as embedded frameworks inside of the Pd .app bundle. This has the advantage of portability to other systems.
The tcltk-wish.sh script automates building a Wish.app with embedded Tcl/Tk, either from the release distributions or from a git clone:
# build Wish-8.6.6.app with embedded Tcl/Tk 8.6.6 mac/tcltk-wish.sh 8.6.6 # build Wish-master-git.app from the latest Tcl/Tk master branch from git mac/tcltk-wish.sh --git master-git
You can also specify which architectures to build (32 bit, 64 bit, or both):
# build 32 bit Wish-8.6.6.app with embedded Tcl/Tk 8.6.6 mac/tcltk-wish.sh --arch i386 8.6.6 # build universal (32 & 64 bit) mac/tcltk-wish.sh --universal 8.6.6
Once your custom Wish.app is built, you can use it as the .app source for osx-app.sh with the -w/–wish option:
# build Pd with a custom Tcl/Tk 8.6.6 Wish mac/osx-app.sh -w Wish-8.6.6.app
Downloading and building Tcl/Tk takes some time. If you are doing lots of builds of Pd and/or are experimenting with different versions of Tcl/Tk, building the embedded Wish.apps you need with tcltk-wish.sh can save you some time as they can be reused when (re)making the Pd .app bundle.
Usually, it’s best to use stable releases of Tcl/Tk. However, there are times when building from the current development version is useful. For instance, if there is a bug in the Tcl/Tk sources and the generated Wish.app crashes on your system, you can then see if there is a fix for this in the Tcl/Tk development version on GitHub. If so, then you can test by using the tcltk-wish.sh –git commandline option. Oftentimes, these kinds of issues will appear with a newer version of macOS before they have been fixed by the open source community.
Additionally, Pd uses an older version of Tcl/Tk for backwards compatibility on macOS. As such, small bugfixes from newer versions may need to be backported for the Pd GUI. Currently, this is handled in the tcltk-wish.sh script by applying custom patches to either the Tcl and/or Tk source trees. To skip applying patches, use the tcltk-wish.sh –no-patches commandline option. See mac/patches/README.txt for more info.
These scripts automate building Pd with the fallback makefiles in the src directory.
To build a 32 bit Pd, copy this “mac” directory somewhere like ~/mac. Also copy a source tarball there, such as pd-0.47-1.src.tar.gz. Then cd to ~/mac and type:
If all goes well, you’ll soon see a new app appear named Pd-0.47-1.app.
If you want to build a 64 bit Pd, perform the same steps and use the build-mac64 script:
Note: The “wish-shell.tgz” is an archive of this app I found on my mac: /System/Library/Frameworks/Tk.framework/Versions/8.4/Resources/Wish Shell.app
A smarter version of the scripts ought to be able to find that file automatically on your system so I wouldn’t have to include it here.
The Pure Data preferences are saved in the macOS “defaults” preference system using the following domains:
The files themselves live in your user home folder and use the .plist extension:
These files use the Apple Property List XML format and shouldn’t be edited directly. You can look inside, edit, and/or delete these using the “defaults” commandline utility in Terminal:
# print the contents of the core settings defaults read org.puredata.pd # delete the current GUI settings defaults delete org.puredata.pd.pd-gui # set the startup flag in the core settings defaults write org.puredata.pd -array-add flags '-lib Gem'
Some important per-application settings required by the GUI include:
These are set in
As of Pd 0.51, the mac/osx-app.sh script performs “ad-hoc code signing” in order to set entitlements to open un-validated dynamic libraries on macOS 10.15+. This is required due to the new security settings. Note: ad-hoc signing doesn’t actually sign the .app bundle with an account certificate, so the unidentified developer warning is still shown when the downloaded .app is run for the first time.
macOS 10.14 introduced system privacy permissions for actions applications can undertake on a user account, such as accessing files or reading microphone or camera input. When an application is started for the first time and tries to access something that is covered by the privacy settings, a permissions prompt is displayed by the system requesting access. The action is then allowed or denied and this setting is saved and applied when the application is run again in the future.
As of macOS 10.15, running Pd will request access for the following:
Additionally, using an external such as Gem for camera input will request access to the Camera.
The current permissions can be changed in Privacy panel in System Preferences. They can also be reset on the commandline using the “tccutil” command and the Pd .app bundle id:
# reset Pd's Microphone privacy setting tccutil reset Microphone org.puredata.pd.pd-gui # reset all of Pd's privacy settings tccutil reset All org.puredata.pd.pd-gui
macOS 10.15 furthered changes to font rendering begin with 10.14 with the weird result that Pd’s default font, DejaVu Sans Mono, renders thin and closer together than system fonts. This results in objects on the patch canvas that are longer their inner text and text selection positioning is off.
To remedy this for now, Pd 0.51-3 changed Pd’s default font for macOS to Menlo which is included with the system since 10.6. Menlo is based on Bitstream Vera Mono and DejaVu Sans Mono, so there should be no issues with patch sizing or positioning.
Pd currently disables Dark Mode support by setting the NSRequiresAquaSystemAppearance key to true in both the app bundle’s Info.plist and the GUI defaults preference file. This restriction may be removed in the future once Dark Mode is handled in the GUI.
On macOS 10.15+, apps must be signed with an entitlement to allow debugging. This is good for security, but bad if you want to run Pd in lldb to figure out why your custom external is crashing.
To make this work, the entitlement can be added to an existing Pd release .app bundle using the codesign command in Terminal (steps by Pierre Alexandre Tremblay):
codesign -d /Applications/Pd-0.53-2.app/Contents/Resources/bin/pd \ --entitlements :~/Desktop/pd-entitlements.xml
codesign -s - --deep --force --options=runtime \ --entitlements ~/Desktop/pd-entitlements.xml \ /Applications/Pd-0.53-2.app/Contents/Resources/bin/pd
Now Pd can be run with lldb using:
Note: Re-signing using an ad-hoc identifier will work on the development system, but running the Pd .app bundle on another system will result in security warnings as the original signature and notarization are invalid.